The Bologna Process commenced in 1999. Ever since, the Ministers responsible for higher education of all the countries of the European Higher Education Area (currently 48) meet every other year to collectively make agreements. These agreements are set down in bulletins. The last meeting was held in Paris in May 2018; the next one is scheduled to be held in Rome in 2020.
A significant milestone in terms of quality assurance is the establishment in 2005 of the European Standards and Guidelines for quality assurance, the ESG, which were updated in 2015. The ESG direct the internal quality assurance in place within universities, whereby the institutions themselves are free to substantiate their quality assurance systems. Furthermore, the ESG contain stipulations regarding external quality assurance, which must also be observed by NVAO.